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B.INGGRIS

BAHASA INGGRIS

Materi mengenai English Grammar

Simple Past Tense
Simple Present Tense
Present Continuous Tense
Present Perfect Tense
Simple Future Tense
Nomina
Noun
Preposition
Questions Tags with short answer “yes/No”
Article

SIMPLE PAST TENSE (WAKTU LAMPAU SEDERHANA)

POSITIVE  (SUBJECT + VERB 2nd Form)
Examples :
My Uncle went to Bogor yesterday.
Last week  I visited some friends.
His Father passed away two years ago.

NEGATIVE (SUBJECT + DID NOT + VERB 1 st. Form)
Examples :
My Uncle did not ( didn’t) go to Bogor yesterday because He was sick.
Last week  I didn’t visit some friends.
His father didn’t pass away two years ago.

INTEROGATIVE (DID + SUBJECT + VERB 1 st. Form)
Examples :
Did my uncle go to Bogor yesterday ?
Yes, He did
No ,He didn’t
Did  You visit some friends last week ?
Yes, I do
No, I don’t
Did  his father pass away two years ago ?
Yes, He did
No, He didn’t

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (WAKTU SEKARANG KEBIASAAN-SEHARI-HARI)

POSITIVE  (SUBJECT + VERB 1st.  Form)
Examples :
My Uncle goes to Bogor every day.
They study english twice a week.
The sun shines during the day.

NEGATIVE (SUBJECT + DO/DOES NOT + VERB 1 st. Form)
Examples :
My Uncle does not (doesn’t) go to Bogor every day.
They do not (don’t) study english twice a week.
The sun doesn’t shines during the day.
We don’t need a fan in this room.

INTEROGATIVE (DO/DOES + SUBJECT + VERB 1 st. Form)
Examples :
Does my uncle go to Bogor every day ?
Yes, He does
No, He doesn’t
Do they study english twice a week ?
Yes, they do
No, they don’t
Does the sun shine during the day ?
Yes, it does.
No, it doesn’t
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE (WAKTU SEKARANG SEDANG BERJALAN)

POSITIVE  (SUBJECT + am/is/are + VERB-ING  Form)
Examples :
My Uncle is going to Bogor by Bus.
They are studying english at school.
The sun is shining brightly.
I am reading a magazine.

NEGATIVE (SUBJECT + am/is/are + not + VERB-ING  Form)
Examples :
My Uncle isn’t going to Bogor by Bus.
They aren’t  studying english at school.
The sun isn’t shining brightly.
I amn’t reading a magazines.

INTEROGATIVE (am/is/are + SUBJECT + VERB-ING  Form)
Examples :
Is my uncle going to Bogor by bus ?
Yes, He is
No, He isn’t
Are they studying english at school?
Yes, they are
No, they aren’t
Is   the sun shining during the day ?
Yes, it is.
No, it isn’t
Are you waiting for me now ?
Yes, I am
– No, I amn’t

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE (WAKTU SEKARANG SELESAI)

POSITIVE  (SUBJECT + have/has + VERB 3 rd. Form)
Examples :
My Uncle has gone   to Bogor by Bus.
They have studied english at school.
The sun has shone brightly.
I have read a magazine.
The students have finished the home work.

NEGATIVE (SUBJECT + have/has + not + VERB 3 rd. Form)
Examples :
My Uncle hasn’t gone   to Bogor by Bus.
They haven’t studied english at school.
The sun hasn’t shone brightly.
I haven’t read a magazine.
The students haven’t finished the home work.

INTEROGATIVE (have/has + SUBJECT + VERB 3 rd. Form)
Examples :
Has my uncle gone to Bogor by bus ?
Yes, He has
No, He hasn’t
Have  they studied english at school?
Yes, they have
No, they haven’t
Has   the sun shone brightly ?
Yes, it has.
No, it hasn’t
Have you waiting for me ?
Yes, I have
No, I haven’t

SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE (WAKTU AKAN DATANG)

POSITIVE  (SUBJECT + shall/will + VERB 1 st. Form)
Examples :
My Uncle will go  to Bogor tomorrow.
They will study english tonight.
I shall buy a a new magazine later.
The students will  visit here next month.

NEGATIVE (SUBJECT + shall/will + not + VERB 1 st. Form)
Examples :
My Uncle will not (won’t) go   to Bogor by Bus.
They won’t study  english at school tonight.
The sun won’t shine brightly.
I shall not (shan’t)  eat in that restaurant again.
The students won’t finish the home work soon.

INTEROGATIVE (shall/will + SUBJECT + VERB 1 st. Form)
Examples :
Will my uncle go to Bogor by bus ?
Yes, He will
No, He won’t
Will  they study  english at 7 pm?
Yes, they will
No, they won’t
Will   the sun shine brightly tomorrow morning?
Yes, it will.
No, it won’t
Will you waiting for me next year?
Yes, I will
No, I won’t

PENGGUNAAN TO BE GING TO (AKAN)
POSITIVE  (SUBJECT + am/is/are + going to + VERB 1 st. Form)
Examples :
My Uncle is going  to Bogor this afternoon.
They are going to study english and stay at my home after.
I am going to buy a new magazine and read it tonight.
The students are going to visit yogyakarta after examination.

NEGATIVE (SUBJECT + am/is/are + not + going to + VERB 1 st. Form)
Examples :
My Uncle is not going  to Bogor this afternoon.
They are not going to study english.
I am not going to buy a new magazine tonight.
The students are not going to visit yogyakarta after examination.

INTEROGATIVE (am/is/are + SUBJECT + going to  + VERB 1 st. Form)
Examples :
Is my uncle going to Bogor by bus ?
Yes, He is
No, He isn’t
Are  they going to study  english at 7 pm?
Yes, they are
No, they aren’t
Is  the sun going to shine brightly tomorrow morning?
Yes, it is.
No, it isn’t
Are you going to wait  for me next year?
Yes, I am
No, I amn’t

NOMINA
NOMINA TERHITUNG (COUNT NOUNS)
Dalam bentuk singular contoh : a chair, one chair, an apple, …
I eat an apple.
I have a chair.
Dalam bentuk plural (banyak terhitung)
contoh :
two chairs, some chairs, several chairs, a lot of chairs, many chairs, a few chairs.
matches, dishes, classes, boxes ( menggunakan -es setelah nouns akhiran -ch,-sh, -ss dan –x
babies, cities ( Noun berakhiran –y maka y diubah menjadi “I” dan ditambah –es. Namun ada juga yang hanya ditambah -s seperti boys, days, keys.
Knives, shelves , ( Noun dengan akhiran –fe, -f diubah menjadi -ves  kecuali beliefs, chief, roofs, cuffs)
Noun berakhiran -o kadang ditambah akhiran -oes atau hanya -os.
Tomatoes, heroes, potatoes, mosquitoes, echoes.
Zoos, radios, studios, pianos, solos, photos, sopranos, autos.
Zeroes/zeros, volcanoes/volcanos, toernadoes/tornados.
Child = children, foot = feet, goose =gesse, man = men, mouse=mice, tooth=teeth, woman=women.
Ada noun yang pluralnya tdk berubah seperti deer, fish, sheep, species.
I ate (some, several, a little, a few, too many, too much, a lot of, two) apples.
Catatan : Dalam singular, digunakan a/an atau one
Dalam plural, digunakan : -s atau -es
NOMINA TAK TERHITUNG ( NONCOUNT NOUNS)
Dalam bentuk singular contoh :
furniture, som e furniture, a lot of furniture, much furniture, a little furniture.
Mail, traffic etc
I ate (some, several, a little, a few, too many, too much, a lot of, two) fruit.
Tidak ada bentuk plural.
Tidak dapat digunakan a/an atau one

NOUNS (KATA BENDA)

PREPOSITION (KATA DEPAN)

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE ( TEMPAT, LETAK)
At = di ( He is at home now )
In = di, di dalam ( There is nobody in the room, We have been living in Banyuwangi for ten years)
On = di, di atas ( The book is on the table, The shoes are on the first floor)
Behind = di belakang, ke belakang ( The vase behind thr wall, They hit behind the house )
Beside = di samping ( Who is sitting beside Jane?)
By = Dekat ( We don’t live by the river )
Into = ke dalam ( The girl went into the room at 7 o’clock last night )
Up = di atas, ke atas ( The terrorists ran up the hill )
Under = di bawah ( Whose book is under the rable? )
Underneath = di bawah ( The letter is underneath the newspaper.)
Above = di atas, lebih tinggi dari ( The statements above are not correct.)
Over = di atas ( My little brother fell over the carpet. )
Inside = di bagian dalam ( The ball is inside the box.)
Outside = di luar (Let’s wait for her outside the room.)
Between = di antara dua orang atau diantara dua benda.
( The Hotel is between the cinema and the bookstore, Nadia is between Linda and Kamalin)
Among = di antara banyak orang atau banyak benda
( The cat is among the box)
Next to = di samping, di sebelah ( The hospital is next to the market )
Round/around = di sekeliling, di sekitar ( The child walks around her mother)
Along = sepanjang ( Walk along the street until you get to the restaurant.)
To = ke, kepada, dengan ( My father goes to office every day.)
Towards = terhadap, ke arah ( They walked towards the room slowly.)
Near = dekat ( My friend lives near his campus.)
From = dari ( Where do you come from ? )
From . . . to .  . . = dari . . . . ke . . . . , dari . . . . sampai dengan . . . .
( I rally started from the centre of the town to new monument.)
Bellow = di bawah (ini). ( Read the sentences bellow!)
Beneath = di bawah ( Did she put the book beneath the paper ? )

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE ( at, on, in)
AT di letakkan di depan kata benda yang menunjukkan sebuah event/peristiwa.
Heny and I met at the party last night.
Berikut kata benda yang di letakkan setelah preposisi at :
At home, at work, at university, at the air port etc

IN , sering digunakan si depan nama sebuah negaraau kota besar.
In Indonesia, in England, In Jakarta etc
IN, juga sering digunakan di depan kata benda penunjuk tempat sebagai berikut :
In a room, in a river, in a mirror, in a town, in the sky, in the sea, in the water etc
Kita juga mengatakan :
In the corner of a room, in the front of, in the of, in an armchair

ON, menyatakan letak lantai dalam sebuah gedung.
On the first floor, on the ground floor, on the tenth floor.
Tetapi kita mengatakan  in the basement
ON, juga sering diikuti kata-kata berikut :
On the ceiling, on your nose, on the beach, on the stage, on the right, on the floor

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME ( at, on, in)
AT, sering digunakan di depan kata keterangan waktu/jam.
The meeting will begin at 8 o’clock.
AT, digunakan di depan frase penunjuk usia .
He passed away at the age of 50.
AT, juga digunakan di depan ungkapan sebagai berikut :
At the week-end, at the beginning of, at the end of, at the moment, at present, at Lebaran, at the same time etc

ON, selalu ditempatkan di depan nama hari.
On Monday, on Friday morning
ON, juga digunakan untuk menyatakan tanggal.
He came here on July 17, 2012.
They got married on April 21, 2000.

IN, digunakan di depan tahun dan abad
In 1905, In the middle age, in the 18 th century.
IN, digunakan di depan nama bulan.
In January, In December
IN, digunakan di depan nama musim.
In winter, in Spring, in summer, in autumn.
IN, digunakan di depan keterangan waktu.
In the morning, in the evening
IN, juga digunakan dengan suatu periode waktu.
In five hours, in a few minute, in three weeks, in two weeks time;

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME ( yang lain)
For = selama
I Have lived here  For ten years
During = selama, pada waktu
I visited them during the holiday.
Since = sejak
I have worked here since 2000
Till/Until = sampai dengan
She will be here until Saturday.
I waited for him until night.
By = tidak lebih dari, paling lambat
Submit your homework by Tuesday.

QUESTION : SHORT ANSWER “YES/NO”

TO BE (am, is, are, was were)

Am I all right ?
Is He in Bali ?
Is She a student ?
Was He here last night ?
Is it colt outside ?
Are you a Teacher ?
Are They in  Banyuwangi ?
Were We invited to the party ?

Yes, You are. / No, You aren’t.
Yes, He is. /No, He isn’t.
Yes, She is. /No, She isn’t.
Yes, He was. / No, He wasn’t.
Yes, It is. /No, It isn’t.
Yes, I am. /No. I amn’t.
Yes, They are. /No, They aren’t.
Yes, We were. / No, We weren’t.

MODAL VERBS. ( can, may, will, should )

Can I go now ?
May I smoke here ?
Will He call us ?
Should we go there ?

Yes, You can. /No, You can’t.
Yes, You may. / No, You mayn’t.
Yes, He will. /No, He won’t.
Yes, We should. / No, We shouldn’t.

( do, does, did )
Do untuk subyek I, You, They , We

Do I know him ?
Do you like milk ?
Do They come here every day ?
Do We want to meet her ?
Yes, You do. / No, You don’t.
Yes, I do. /No, I don’t.
Yes, They do. / No, They don’t.
Yes, We do. /No, We don’t.

Does untuk subyek He, She, It, subyek tunggal lainnya.

Does He live here ?
Does She love you ?
Does It always rain here ?
Does The Girl live here ?
Yes, He does. /No, He doesn’t.
Yes, She does. / No, She doesn’t.
Yes, It does. /No, It doesn’t.
Yes, She does. /No, She doesn’t.

( Have, has, had )

Have you meet her ?
Has he arrived ?
Has she called him ?
Have They moved ?

Had you met her ?
Had he arrived ?
Had She called him ?
Had They moved ?
Yes, I have./ No, I haven’t.
Yes, He have. /No, He haven’t.
Yes,she have. /No, she haven’t.
Yes, They have. / No, They haven’t.

Yes, I had./ No, I hadn’t.
Yes, He had./ No, He hadn’t.
Yes, she had./ No, she hadn’t.
Yes, they had./ No, they hadn’t.

 

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