A computer sebuah alat elektronik, yg beroperasi di bawah kontrol dr instruksi2 yang tersimpan dalam memorynya sendiri

Siklus Pemrosesan informasi (Information Processing Cycle)

A computer terdiri dri bbrp mcam listrik,  alat elektronik, and komponen2 mekanik yg disebut hardware
Input Device     :  Allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer
Output Device  : Hardware component that conveys information to one or more  people
System Unit      : Case  that contains the electronic  components of the computer that                                          are used to process data
Storage Device  : Holds data, instructions, and information for future use
Communications Device : Enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers or mobile devices
Komponen komputer

Advantages and Disadvantages
of Using Computers
Green computing involves reducing the electricity consumed and environmental waste generated when using a computer
Strategies include:
Regulating manufacturing processes
Extending the life of computers
Immediately donating or properly disposing of replaced computers
Networks and the Internet
A network is a collection of computers and devices connected together, often wirelessly, via communications devices and transmission media

The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals.

A social networking Web site encourages members to share their interests, ideas, stories, photos, music, and videos with other registered users
Computer Software
Software, also called a program, tells the computer what tasks to perform and how to perform them
System Software
Operating system
Utility program

Installing is the process of setting up software to work with the computer, printer, and other hardware

A programmer develops software or writes the instructions that direct the computer to process data into information.

Personal Computers
A personal computer can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself
Two popular architectures are the PC and the Apple

A server controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network
Provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information
A mainframe is a large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously

A supercomputer is the fastest, most powerful computer
Fastest supercomputers are capable of processing more than one quadrillion instructions in a single second
Embedded Computers
An embedded computer is a special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product
Examples of Computer Usage
Power User
Work with multimedia
Use industry-specific software
Enterprise User
Communicate among employees
Process high volumes of transactions


The System Unit

The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data
The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes:
The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit
A computer chip contains integrated circuits

The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer.
Contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU)

The control unit is the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer
The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations

Data Representation
Analog signals are continuous and vary in strength and quality
Digital signals are in one of two states: on or off
Most computers are digital
The binary system uses two unique digits (0 and 1)
Bits and bytes
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most widely used coding scheme to represent data.

Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data
Stores three basic categories of items:
Each location in memory has an address
Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), or terabytes (TB)
RAM chips usually reside on a memory module and are inserted into memory slots

Memory cache speeds the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data
Read-only memory (ROM) refers to memory chips storing permanent data and instructions
A PROM (programmable read-only memory) chip is a blank ROM chip that can be written to permanently
Flash memory can be erased electronically and rewritten
CMOS technology provides high speeds and consumes little power
Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards
An expansion slot is a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card
An adapter card enhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals
Sound card and video card
With Plug and Play, the computer automatically can configure adapter cards and other peripherals as you install them
Removable flash memory includes:
Memory cards, USB flash drives, and PC Cards/ExpressCard modules
Ports and Connectors
A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit (sometimes referred to as a jack) .
On a notebook computer, the ports are on the back, front, and/or sides .

Power Supply
The power supply converts the wall outlet AC power into DC power .


Input, adlh semua data dan instruksi yang dimasukkan ke dalam memory sebuah komputer
Instructions dapat dimasukkan ke dalam komputer dalam bentuk program, perintah, dan respon pengguna

Input Devices
An input device adalah komponen hardware yang memungkinkan pengguna untuk memasukkan data dan instruksi ke dalam computer.
The Keyboard
A keyboard is an input device that contains keys users press to enter data and instructions into a computer.
The insertion point, also known as the cursor, is a symbol on the screen that indicates where the next character you type will appear
An ergonomic keyboard has a design that reduces the chance of wrist and hand injuries.
Ergonomics incorporates comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of the workplace .

Pointing Devices
A pointing device is an input device that allows a user to control a pointer on the screen.
A pointer is a small symbol on the screen whose location and shape change as a user moves a pointing device .
A mouse is a pointing device that fits under the palm of your hand comfortably
Most widely used pointing device on desktop computers
A mouse can be wired or wireless

Pen Input
With pen input, you touch a stylus or digital pen on a flat surface to write, draw, or make selections .

Game Controllers
Video games and computer games use a game controller as the input device that directs movements and actions of on-screen objects
Digital Cameras
A digital camera is a mobile device that allows users to take pictures and store them digitally .
Voice Input
Voice input is the process of entering input by speaking into a microphone
Voice recognition is the computer’s capability of distinguishing spoken words .
Audio input is the process of entering any sound into the computer

Video Input
Video input is the process of capturing full-motion images and storing them on a computer’s storage medium .
A Web cam is a type of digital video camera that enables a user to:

Scanners and Reading Devices
Optical character recognition (OCR) involves reading characters from ordinary documents
A turnaround document is a document you return to the company that creates and sends it .

Optical mark recognition (OMR) reads hand-drawn marks such as small circles or rectangles
An OMR device scans the documents and matches the patterns of light.
RFID (radio frequency identification) uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object
An RFID reader reads information on the tag via radio waves
RFID can track:
Magnetic stripe card readers read the magnetic stripe on the back of cards such as:

MICR (magnetic ink character recognition) devices read text printed with magnetized ink
An MICR reader converts MICR characters into a form the computer can process
Banking industry uses MICR for check processing.
Data collection devices obtain data directly at the location where the transaction or event takes place
Used in:
Grocery stores
The outdoors

Biometric Input
Biometrics authenticates a person’s identity by verifying a personal characteristic .

A terminal is a computer that allows users to send data to and/or receive information from a host computer.
Input Devices for Physically Challenged Users

Several input devices are available to assist physically challenged users

Output is data that has been processed into a useful form
An output device is any type of hardware component that conveys information to one or more people .

Display Devices
A display device visually conveys text, graphics, and video information
A monitor is packaged as a separate peripheral
LCD monitor
Widescreen .
Liquid crystal display (LCD) uses a liquid compound to present information on a display device
The quality of an LCD monitor or LCD screen depends primarily.

The graphics processing unit (GPU) controls the manipulation and display of graphics on a display device
LCD monitors use a digital signal and should plug into a DVI port, and HDMI port, or a DisplayPort .
Plasma monitors are display devices that use gas plasma technology and offer screen sizes up to 150 inches.

A printer produces text and graphics on a physical medium
Printed information is called a hard copy, or printout
Landscape or portrait orientation
A nonimpact printer forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper without actually striking the paper
An ink-jet printer forms characters and graphics by spraying tiny drops of liquid ink onto a piece of paper
Color or black-and-white
Printers with a higher dpi (dots per inch) produce a higher quality output
A multifunction peripheral (MFP) is a single device that prints, scans, copies, and in some cases, faxes
Sometimes called an all-in-one device
Impact printers form characters and graphics on a piece of paper by striking a mechanism against an inked ribbon that physically contacts the paper
A dot-matrix printer produces printed images when tiny wire pins on a print head mechanism strike an inked ribbon
A line printer prints an entire line at a time

Speakers, Headphones, and Earbuds
An audio output device produces music, speech, or other sounds
Headphones are speakers that cover your head or are placed outside of the ear
Earbuds (also called earphones) rest inside the ear canal


Holds data, instructions, and information for future use
Storage medium is physical material used for storage
Magnetic Disks
hard disk
Components enclosed in airtight, sealed case for protection
Vertical section of track through all platters
Single movement of read/write head arms accesses all platters
in cylinder .
miniature hard disk
Provide greater storage capacities than flash memory
Smaller than notebook computer hard disks
A pocket hard drive is a self-contained unit
Optical Discs
optical discs  :
Flat, round, portable metal discs made of metal, plastic, and lacquer
Can be read only or read/write
Data stored on an optical disc:
Typically stored in single track
Track divided
into evenly
sized sectors
that store
items .

PC Cards and ExpressCard Modules
Adds capabilities to computer
Credit-card-sized device commonly used in notebook computers

System Software
Programs that control
or maintain operation
of computer
Two types are
operating systems
and utility programs
Operating system (OS)
(sometimes called the platform)
coordinates all activities
among computer

Operating Systems
What is a cross-platform application?
Runs the same on multiple operating systems
Operating System Functions
What is booting?
Process of starting or restarting a computer
Cold boot  Turning on computer that has been powered off
Warm boot  Restarting computer that is powered on
What is a boot disk?
Contains system files that will start computer when computer cannot boot
Also called recovery disk

What is a user interface?
Controls how you enter data and instructions and how information displays on screen .

What is a graphical user interface (GUI)?
User interacts with menus and visual images such as buttons and other graphical object.
What is single user/ multitasking?
Working on two or more programs that reside in memory at same time .
Foreground contains program you are using
Background contains
programs that are
running but are not
in use
What is memory management?
Optimizing use of random access memory (RAM)
With virtual memory (VM), portion of hard disk is allocated to function as RAM.

What is spooling
Sending print jobs to buffer instead of directly to printer
Print jobs line up in queue

Operating System Utility Programs
What is a utility program?
System software that performs maintenance-type tasks
Also called
What is a file manager?
Performs functions related to file management
Image viewer displays, copies, and prints contents of graphics file
What is a disk scanner?
Searches for and removes unnecessary files
Windows Vista includes
Disk Cleanup

What is a disk defragmenter
Reorganizes files and unused space on hard disk so programs run faster.

What is a diagnostic utility?
Compiles technical information about hardware and some software
Prepares report outlining problems.

What is a backup utility?
Copies selected files or entire hard disk onto another storage medium
Most compress files during backup to require less storage space.


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